vArtA, daNDanIti sthapana

All the modern education that develops a skill to make money is called vArtA which leads to a vRtti or profession. It could be based on agriculture, animal husbandry or economics & trade. All professions that give livelihood are vArta. That is needed for everyone to earn some money.

But, that vArtA should not go purely profit seeking without giving any fulfillment. When the vArta is based on swadharma, that not only gives livelihood but also gives fulfillment as it helps the society to function properly and sustains the society for generations to come. 

danDanIti is generally accepted by all the teachers as one of the fundamental educations to the King / Leader. “lOkayAtra i.e., the operation of the world is based on application of daNDa. King should use the daNDa always” is the opinion of past teachers. “No” says kauTilya. Harsh punishment leads to hatred. If punishment is soft then people reject the King. Hence,

suvijJnAta praNItohi daNDaH prajAH dharmArthakAmaiH yojayati. … apraNIto hi mAtsyanyAyamudbhAvayati….

सुविज्ञत प्रणीतोहि दण्डः प्रजाः धर्मार्थकामैः योजयति. … अप्रणीतो हि मात्स्यन्यायमुद्भावयति….

One who has properly studied the SAstra of daNDanIti, such King’s punishment will keep the people engaged in dharma, artha and kAma (not the opposites! adharma, anartha, and vidvesha) One who has not understood the SAstra of daNDanIti, such a king’s kingdom slips into the “law of fishes” (big fish eats small fish)

In this world there are two types of nyAyAs. One is the law of fishes and the other is law of humans. In the law of humans big one helps the small one and in the law of fishes the big fish eats the small one. 

चतुर्वर्णाश्रमो लोको रज्ञा दण्डेन पालितः ।
स्वधर्मकर्माभिरतो वर्तते स्वेषु वेश्मसु ॥

In a kingdom that is taken care (pAlitaH – just like a mother takes care of the baby) by a King who uses the daNDa properly, people (lOka constituted by four social orders and four stages of life) engage themselves in the own duties and actions live happily in their houses.

Thus we reach the end of 4th chapter.

Thus we reach the end of first prakaraNa called vidya samuddesyaH.

This first topic has established the right notions regarding the education and removed all the false notions regarding them.

This is my 555th blog post in my overall blogging career! and 8th on artha SAstra.

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