On dissatisfaction and disloyalty

This post covers 13th and 14th adhyAyas of artha SAstra.

Till now we have seen building the visible and secret state administration layers and testing the loyalty of the appointed administrative officers.

Now, cANakya deals with the primary reasons that lead to dissatisfaction of appointed officers and making them disloyal and sometimes traitors.

Technical term used for “those who can be worked upon” to make them disloyal are “kRtya

kRtyas are of 4 types: (officers turn disloyal due to four  feelings developing)

“कृद्ध लुब्ध भीत अवमानिनः तु परेषां कृत्याः” says cANakya.

  1. kRddha varga (due to krOdha or anger) e.g, because a promise of ‘promotion’ has not been kept etc., leading the officer to develop anger on the King.
  2. lubdha varga ( due to lObha or greed) e.g, an officer may be addicted to some bad habits making him greedy. 
  3. bhIta varga (due to bhaya or fear ) e.g., an officer may have committed something wrong and has seen another officer being severely punished by the King for such wrong doing.
  4. mAni varga (due to mAna or pride or false ego ) e.g., an officer may develop a false self-esteem making him dissatisfied with the King/Leader. to

Officers do not turn disloyal due  to above four reasons are “akRtyas” who need to be respected and honored.

So, the ninth topic of the book deals with “officers turning disloyal” in Leader’s own territory and dealing with them and tenth topic deals with kRtyas in the other territories.

  1. A King should identify the kRtyas in his own territory and fix them using sAma, dAna, bhEda and danDa upAyAs. (Topic 9)
  2. A King should also identify the kRtyas in the enemy kingdom to weaken the enemy. (using sAma and dAna); A King should use bhEda and daNDa on the akRtyas and continuously show the defects in the enemy king to them. (Topic 10)

Note: Anger, Greed, Fear & Pride are the four feelings that corrupt the officers with power. Leader should be aware of this fact and properly deal with these  feelings of appointed officers.

This brings us to the end of 14th chapter and completes 10 topics on the subject.

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