Archive for August, 2013

F1 Database from Google: A scalable distributed SQL database

August 30, 2013


This world is a sphere. We keep going round and round. After a great hype around the NoSQL highly distributed databases, now Google presented a paper on how they have implemented a SQL based highly scalable database for supporting their “AdWords” business in 39th VLDB conference.

The news item:
and the paper:

The key changes I liked:
1. Heirarchically clustered physical schema model: I always thought heighrarchical model is more suited for real life application than a pure relational model. This implementations is proving it.

2. Protocol Buffers: Columns allowing structured types. It saves a lot of ORM style conversions when moving data from a storage to in-memory and vice versa.

A quote from the paper’s conclusion:

In recent years, conventional wisdom in the engineering community has been that if you need a highly scalable, high-throughput data store, the only viable option is to use a NoSQL key/value store, and to work around the lack of ACID transactional guarantees and the lack of conveniences like secondary indexes, SQL, and so on. When we sought a replacement for Google’s MySQL data store for the Ad-Words product, that option was simply not feasible: the complexity of dealing with a non-ACID data store in every part of our business logic would be too great, and there was simply no way our business could function without SQL queries.

So, ACID is needed and SQL is essential for running the businesses! Have a nice weekend!!

గోవిన్దాష్టకం – gOvindAshTakam

August 27, 2013

సత్యం ఙ్ఞానమనన్తం నిత్యమనాకాశం పరమాకాశమ్ |
గోష్ఠప్రాఙ్గణరిఙ్ఖణలోలమనాయాసం పరమాయాసమ్ |
మాయాకల్పితనానాకారమనాకారం భువనాకారమ్ |
క్ష్మామానాథమనాథం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౧ ||
satyam, jnAnam, anantam, nityam, anAkASam, paramAkASam.
real, pure, knowledge, infinite, eternal, not covered by space, ultimate space that covers everything.
goshTha-prAgaNa rinkhaNa lOlam, anAyAsam, paramAyAsam.
one who enjoyes crawling in the cow-pen, effortless, highly laborious (for some)
mAyA-kalpita nAnA-Akarm, anAkAram, bhuvana-AkAram.
magically appears in various forms, formless, of the world-form
kshmA-mA-natham, anAtham, praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam.
protector (husband) of Earth (kshma, source of all wealth) and moving wealth (lakshmi, mA), one without any protector for himself (no one above him to protect him) gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down.

మృత్స్నామత్సీహేతి యశోదాతాడనశైశవ సన్త్రాసమ్ |
వ్యాదితవక్త్రాలోకితలోకాలోకచతుర్దశలోకాలిమ్ |
లోకత్రయపురమూలస్తమ్భం లోకాలోకమనాలోకమ్ |
లోకేశం పరమేశం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౨ ||
mRtsnAmtsIhEti yaSOdA-tADana-SaiSava santrAsam
as a boy having eaten soil, afraid of punishment from mother yaSOda
vyAdita-vaktra-AlOkita-lOkA-lOka caturdaSa-lOkAlim
when opened the mouth shown the array of fourteen worlds in his mouth
lOka-traya-pura-mUla-sthambham, lOkA-lOkam anAlOkam
the central pillar for the city consisting of three layers of worlds, appearing as worlds and beyond worlds
lOkESam, paramESam praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam.
lord of worlds, ultimate Lord, gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

త్రైవిష్టపరిపువీరఘ్నం క్షితిభారఘ్నం భవరోగఘ్నమ్ |
కైవల్యం నవనీతాహారమనాహారం భువనాహారమ్ |
వైమల్యస్ఫుటచేతోవృత్తివిశేషాభాసమనాభాసమ్ |
శైవం కేవలశాన్తం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౩ ||
traivishTapa-ripu vIraghnam, kshiti-bhAraghnam, bhava-rOgaghnam
one who has removed the pride from Bali, conqueror of Indra (king of Gods), one who removes the burden (burden of evil) on the earth, who removes the disease of repeated births
kaivalyam navanItAhAram, anAhAram, bhuvanAhAram
one who abides in absolute unity, takes freshly churned cream as food, one who does not need any food, one who can devour whole universe as food.
vaimalya-sphuTa-cEtOvRtti-vishEshAbhAsam, anAbhAsam
appears clearly to the purified consciousness, disappears otherwise
Saivam, kEvala-SAntam, praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam.
devotee of Siva, ever-peaceful, gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

గోపాలం ప్రభులీలావిగ్రహగోపాలం కులగోపాలమ్ |
గోపీఖేలనగోవర్ధనధృతలీలాలాలితగోపాలమ్ |
గోభిర్నిగదిత గోవిన్దస్ఫుటనామానం బహునామానమ్ |
గోధీగోచరదూరం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౪ ||
gOpAlam, prabhu-lIlA-vigraha-gOpAlam, kula-gOpAlam.
protector of the world, lord-of-playful-figure-appeared as gOpala i.e., kRshna, protector of the race of yAdavas who take care of cows
who protected the cowheards by lifting up the mountain gOvardhana
gObhirnigadita gOvinda sphuTa nAmAnam bahu-nAmAnam
thereby given the name “gOpAla” and who has several names
gO dhI gOcara dUram praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam
but, beyond the scope of words and ideas (of ignorant people)  gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

గోపీమణ్డలగోష్ఠీభేదం భేదావస్థమభేదాభమ్ |
శశ్వద్గోఖురనిర్ధూతోద్గత ధూళీధూసరసౌభాగ్యమ్ |
శ్రద్ధాభక్తిగృహీతానన్దమచిన్త్యం చిన్తితసద్భావమ్ |
చిన్తామణిమహిమానం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౫ ||
gOpImanDala gOshThIbhEdam bhEdavastham abhEdabham
one who appears distinctly in each group of gOpis, ever non-dual
one who appears auspicious covered by the dust rising from the hoofs of cows
SraddhA-bhakti gRhIta-Anandam, acintyam, cintita-sadbhAvam
blissfully attained by faith and devotion, unthinkable, though thought as faithfulness
cintAmaNi-mahimAnam, praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam.
one with the power of desire fulfilling gem, gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

స్నానవ్యాకులయోషిద్వస్త్రముపాదాయాగముపారూఢమ్ |
వ్యాదిత్సన్తీరథ దిగ్వస్త్రా దాతుముపాకర్షన్తం తాః
నిర్ధూతద్వయశోకవిమోహం బుద్ధం బుద్ధేరన్తస్థమ్ |
సత్తామాత్రశరీరం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౬ ||
snAnavyAkula yOshidvastram upAdAyAgam upArUDham
one who took away the cloths of gOpIs indulged in bathing in waters
vyditsantIratha didvasta dAtumupAkrshantam taAH
made them come close to you to take back their cloths
nirdhUta-dvaya-SOka-vimOham, buddham, buddhEH-antastham
one who removes the grief due to the delusion of duality, one who is intelligent, dwelling in the intellect
sattA-mAtra-sArIram praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam.
form of pure-existence, gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

కాన్తం కారణకారణమాదిమనాదిం కాలఘనాభాసమ్ |
కాళిన్దీగతకాలియశిరసి సునృత్యన్తమ్ ముహురత్యన్తమ్ |
కాలం కాలకలాతీతం కలితాశేషం కలిదోషఘ్నమ్ |
కాలత్రయగతిహేతుం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౭ ||
kAntam, kAraNa-kAraNam, Adi, anAdim kAla-ghAnAbhAsam
one who attracts everythig, cause of all causes, the beginning and the beginnigless, strong-TIME
kALindI gata kAliya SiraSi sunRtyantam muhuratyantam
who rejoices dancing on the kAlIya in the lake of kAlindi
kAlam, kAlakalAtItam, kalitAsEsham, kali-dOshaghnam
time, one who is beyond the power of time (like growth, transformation, decay etc., effects of time), one who moves everything, who removes the defects of kali (the iron age!)
kAlatraya gati hEtum praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam
the power behind the three modes of time movement (as past, present and future) gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

బృన్దావనభువి బృన్దారకగణబృన్దారాధితవన్దేహమ్ |
కున్దాభామలమన్దస్మేరసుధానన్దం సుహృదానన్దమ్ |
వన్ద్యాశేష మహాముని మానస వన్ద్యానన్దపదద్వన్ద్వమ్ |
వన్ద్యాశేషగుణాబ్ధిం ప్రణమత గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దమ్ || ౮ ||
bRndAvana bhuvi bRndArakagaNa bRnda-ArAdhita vandEham
one who is worshiped by groups of devotees and gods, in the land of bRndAvana
kundAbhAmala mandasmEra sudhAnandam suhRdAnandam
whose blemishless smile shines forth bliss as the kunda flower, causes happiness in the good people
vandyAsEsha mahAmuni mAnasa vandyAnanda pada dvandvam
whose lotus feet are adored and prised and worshipped by the great sages’ minds
vandyAsEshaguNAbdhim praNamata gOvindam paramAnandam
who as all qualities that are praiseworthy,  gOvinda (protector of everything) who is personified supreme bliss, I bow down. 

గోవిన్దాష్టకమేతదధీతే గోవిన్దార్పితచేతా యః |
గోవిన్దాచ్యుత మాధవ విష్ణో గోకులనాయక కృష్ణేతి |
గోవిన్దాఙ్ఘ్రి సరోజధ్యానసుధాజలధౌతసమస్తాఘః |
గోవిన్దం పరమానన్దామృతమన్తస్థం స తమభ్యేతి ||
gOvindAshTakam Etat adhItE gOvindArpita cEtA yaH
gOvind, acyuta, mAdhava, vishNO, gOkula-nAyaka, kRshnA iti
gOvinda-anghri-sarOja-dhyAna-sudhA-jala dhauta samastAghaH
gOvindam paramAnada amRtam antastham saH tamabhyEti.

This gOvinda-ashTakam (eight verses on gOvinda) recited by any one whose mind is submitted to the Lord Govinda concentrating on the lord remembering the names gOvinda, acyuta, mAdhava, vishnu, gOkulanAyaka, krishna. Having all the sins washed away by the stream of nectar flowing from the lotus feet of lord gOvinda, attains the indwelling ultimate bliss of gOvinda!

ఇతి శ్రీ శఙ్కరాచార్య విరచిత శ్రీగోవిన్దాష్టకం సమాప్తం
iti SrI SankarAcArya viracita SrI gOvindAshTakam samAptam.

— Sharing this gOvindAshTakam composed by bhagavAn Adi Sankara bhagavadpAda on the eve of gOkulAshTami….

Anticipatory Computing and Functional Programming – some rambling…

August 23, 2013


After an early morning discussion on Anticipatory Computing on TCS’s enterprise social network – Knome,  I thought of making this blog post linking the aspects of “functional orientation” of complex systems with consciousness.

In the computing world, it is generally widely accepted fact that data can exist without any prescribed associated process. Once the data is stored on a medium (generally called as Memory) it can be put into any abstract process trying to derive some conclusions. (This trend is generally called as big-data analytics leading to predictive and prescriptive analytics)


If I mention that function can exist without any prescribed data to it with multiple outcomes, then it is not easily accepted. Only thing people can think about is completely chaotic random number generator in this. Completely data independent, pure function that returns a function based on its own “anticipation” is what is called consciousness.

This is one of my interest areas in computability and information theory. A complex system behavior is not driven entirely by the data presented to it. Trying to model the complex system purely by the past data emitted by the system is not going to work. One should consider the anticipatory bias of the system as well while modeling.

Functional Programming comes a step near to this paradigm. It tries to define the function without intermittent state preserving variables. In mathematical terms a function maps elements of domain to its range. Abstracting this into an anticipation model we get the consciousness (or free will) as a function of three possible return functions.

1. Will do
2. Will NOT do
3. Will do differently
(I have derived this based on an ancient Sanskrit statement regarding free will – kartum, akartum, anyathA vA kartum saktaH)

The third option above (it is beyond binary, 0 or 1) leads to the recursion of this function of evaluation of alternatives and again at (t+Δt) the system has all the three options. When the anticipatory system responds then “data” starts emitting from it. The environment in with this micro anticipatory system is operating is also a macro anticipatory system.

The ongoing hype around big data is to establish the patterns of data emitted from various micro-systems and establishing the function of macro-freewill. It is easier for a micro-freewill to dynamically model the function which is called “intuition” that is beyond the limits of computability.

Enough of techno-philosophical rambling for this Friday! Have a nice weekend.

భ్రమరాంబాష్టకం – bhramaraamba-ashtakam

August 11, 2013

चारुस्मेरमुखां चराचरजगत्संरक्षणीं तत्पदाम .
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. १..

చారుస్మేరముఖాం చరాచరజగత్సంరక్షణీం తత్పదామ్
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౧ ||

कर्पूरद्रावमिक्षचूर्णखदिरामोदोल्लसद्वीटिकाम .
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. २..

శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౨ ||

राजन्मत्तमरालमन्दगमनां राजीवपत्रेक्षणां
राजीवप्रभवादिदेवमकुटै राजत्पदाम्भोरुहाम .
राजीवायतमन्दमण्डितकुचां राजाधिराजेश्वरीं
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ३..

రాజన్మత్తమరాలమందగమనాం రాజీవపత్రేక్షణాం
రాజీవప్రభవాదిదేవమకుటైః రాజత్పదాంభోరుహామ్
రాజీవాయతమందమండితకుచాం రాజాధిరాజేశ్వరీం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౩ ||

षट्तारां गणदीपिकां शिवसतीं षड्वैरिवर्गापहां
षट्चक्रान्तरसंस्थितां वरसुधां षड्योगिनीवेष्टिताम .
षट्चक्राञ्चितपादुकाञ्चितपदां षड्भावगां षोडशीं
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ४..

షట్తారాం గణదీపికాం శివసతీం షడ్వైరివర్గాపహాం
షట్చక్రాంతరసంస్థితాం వరసుధాం షడ్యోగినీవేష్టితామ్
షట్చక్రాంచితపాదుకాంచితపదాం షడ్భావగాం షోడశీం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౪ ||

श्रीनाथादृतपालितात्रिभुवनां श्रिचक्रसंचारिणीं
ज्ञानासक्तमनोजयौवनलसद्गन्धर्वकन्यादृताम .
दीनानामातिवेलभाग्यजननीं दिव्याम्बरालंकृतां
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ५..

శ్రీనాథాదృతపాలితత్రిభువనాం శ్రీచక్రసంచారిణీం
దీనానామాతివేలభాగ్యజననీం దివ్యాంబరాలంకృతాం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౫ ||

लावण्याधिकभूषिताङ्गलतिकां लाक्षालसद्रागिणीं
सेवायातसमस्तदेववनितां सीमन्तभूषान्विताम .
भावोल्लासवशीकृतप्रियतमां भण्डासुरच्छेदिनीं
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ६..

లావణ్యాధికభూషితాంగలతికాం లాక్షాలసద్రాగిణీం
సేవాయాతసమస్తదేవవనితాం సీమంతభూషాన్వితామ్
భావోల్లాసవశీకృతప్రియతమాం భండాసురచ్ఛేదినీం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౬ ||

धन्यां सोमविभावनीयचरितां धाराधरश्यामलां
मुन्याराधनमेधिनीं सुमवतां मुक्तिप्रदानव्रताम .
कन्यापूजनपुप्रसन्नहृदयां काञ्चीलसन्मध्यमां
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ७..

ధన్యాం సోమవిభావనీయ చరితాం ధారాధరశ్యామలాం
మున్యారాధనమేదినీం సుమవతాం ముక్తిప్రదానవ్రతామ్
కన్యాపూజనసుప్రసన్నహృదయాం కాంచీలసన్మధ్యమాం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౭ ||

कर्पूरागरुकुङ्कुमाङ्कितकुचां कर्पूरवर्णस्थितां
कृष्टोत्कृष्टसुकृष्टकर्मदहनां कामेश्वरीं कामिनीम .
कामाक्षीं करुणारसार्द्रहृदयां कल्पान्तरस्थायिनीं
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ८..

కర్పూరాగరుకుంకుమాంకితకుచాం కర్పూరవర్ణస్థితాం
కృష్టోత్కృష్టసుకృష్టకర్మదహనాం కామేశ్వరీం కామినీమ్
కామాక్షీం కరుణారసార్ద్రహృదయాం కల్పాంతరస్థాయినీం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౮ ||

गायत्रीं गरुडध्वजां गगनगां गान्धर्वगानप्रियां
गम्भीरां गजगामिनीं गिरिसुतां गन्धाक्षतालंकृताम .
गङ्गागौत्मगर्गसंनुतपदां गां गौतमीं गोमतीं
श्रीशैलस्थलवासिनीं भगवतीं श्रीमातरं भावये .. ९..

గాయత్రీం గరుడధ్వజాం గగనగాం గాంధర్వగానప్రియాం
గంభీరాం గజగామినీం గిరిసుతాం గంధాక్షతాలంకృతామ్
గంగాగౌతమగర్గసన్నుతపదాం గాం గౌతమీం గోమతీం
శ్రీశైలస్థలవాసినీం భగవతీం శ్రీమాతరం భావయే || ౯ ||

इति श्रीमत्परमहंसपरिव्राजकाचार्यस्य
श्रीमच्छंकरभगवतः कृतौ
भ्रमराम्बाष्टकं सम्पूर्णम ..

ఇతి శ్రీమత్పరమహంసపరివ్రాజకాచార్యస్య
శ్రీమచ్ఛంకరభగవతః కృతౌ
భ్రమరాంబాష్టకం సంపూర్ణం ..భ్రమరాంబాష్టకం

ONE who is of the form of gAyatrI, of the form of Lakshmi (garuDadhwajam), pervades the space, enjoys the celestial singing of gAndharvas, unmoving as a deep ocean, moves gently like a mighty elephant, daughter of mountain, adorned with sandal paste and akshatas, having the feet worshipped by Ganga, Gautama and Garga, of the form of cow, GautamI and Gomati, dwells in SrISaila, goddess, divine mother; I Adore!

upayukta-pariksha – Inspecting the officers and their activities

August 10, 2013

Having discussed the revenue department and treasury, now we go on to a more general regular inspection or performance appraisal process for state officials.

A regular review and inspection is essential for the appointed officials as only after acquiring the power, they start misusing it.

chitta-anityatvAn-manushyANAm” – the human mind is naturally fickle.

Once appointed, officials should perform their own DUTIES as per the orders of the LEADER/KING. Only in emergency situations they should take their own decisions without informing the leader. In regular activities all deviations should have a prior approval.

When officials form a group within them, combined they get involved in the corruption. When officials have internal quarrels between them, they harm the overall objective of the work in hand.

Any official is spending more than his income, he is involved in corruption.

Any official underperforming and not meeting revenue target is causing the damage to the king’s property. But if

Any official is over performing and collecting double of his target, is causing the damage to the people by making them overpay!

Any official is not spending as per the budget is not paying the people/suppliers of resources properly. This causes the damage of relationship with workers/suppliers.

So, an official should focus on getting the work done by right work force as per the quality criteria originally decided in time and only collect the prescribed fees and taxes from the subjects in a timely manner. (An inspection should consider all the aspects with due importance)

It is important to have multiple supervisors and non-permanent supervisors for supervising the activities of officials.

 “yathA-hi-anAsvAdayitum na Sakyam jivhA-tala-stham madhu vA visham vA; arthaH-tathA hi artha-carENa rAJnaH svalpO api na AsvAdayitum na SakyaH” – Just as it is impossible not to taste the nectar or poison that flows on the tongue, in the same way at least a little of money gets misappropriated by the officials who are handling it regularly. ide

As we can’t identify when the fish is drinking water, it is difficult to identify when the officials get involved in corruption. It may be easy to trace the path of a flying bird, but difficult to identify the ways of corruption carried out by appointed officials.

It is important to recover the damages of corruption from the officials. Transfer or demote the official depending on the cause of the corruption.

Honest officers only need to be made permanent. Only the honest officers keep up the dharma under the supervision of the righteous leader/King.

This brings us to the end of 9th chapter of book 2 of artha SAstra called upyukta-pariksha. This is the 30th chapter from the beginning of the SAstra.

Science, Research, Consulting and Philosophy

August 8, 2013

It was this day 25 years back (08-08-1988) I have joined my Bachelors of Science in Computer Sciences course. The aim at that time is be become a Scientist. As the years passed, I have completed my Masters and joined in Indian Space Research Organization.

Due to various reasons, I could not register for a PhD degree nor could continue my Research career. Instead, I started doing software consulting joining TCS, the largest software services company of India. That took me to various business domains starting with Banking moving into Utilities (Gas Transportation), retail, financial services and insurance. Working as a developer, tester, modeller, designer, architect, pre-sales solution support, offshore delivery manager etc., roles gave me an experience worth of PhD.

Later it was a period of working with Oracle in the core Server Technologies division when we were working closely with the select elite customers of Enterprise Manager product who were monitoring and managing large data centers.

A later period it turned out to be philosophy. Philosophy of data, information, knowledge trying to optimize the end to end information flows using the right strategies for the life cycle of information. Efficient data capture from individual transactions. Supporting the operational requirements with the needed latency, making it available in the right format for its human and other computing systems, transforming and moving around efficiently to derive much needed long term strategic decisions etc.,

Most of my career till date has moved through the highs and lows of information technology hype cycles, peaks, waves and magic quadrants…..

Links to the blog posts that are made around 8-August…..

Last year:


recovering the revenue misappropriated by the state officers

August 4, 2013

Recovering the revenue misappropriated by the state officers – yukta-apahRtasya prati-Anayanam

kOSa pUrvA sarvArambhAH – the basis of all the beginnings is the treasury. The state officers working in the revenue department need to be carefully supervised.

Typically, they may get involved in 7 types of misappropriations of power –
1. pratibandham – Not collecting the income in right amount. Not adding it to treasury.
2. prayOgam – Using the money in the treasury and earning “interest” on it. Or doing business with the items belong to the treasury.
3. avasthAram – Delaying the collection (by taking bribe from the party) or Demanding collection before the due date (for harassing parties)
4. parihApaNam – reducing the budgeted income; increasing the budgeted expenditure.
5. upabhOgam – using the money/things in the treasury for own enjoyment.
6. parivartanam – replacing a good quality item belonging to the treasury with a similar low quality item.
7. apahAram – twisting the accounts to show lower balance.

There are 40 techniques used by the officers to do the apaharaNam.

1. Recording income accrued earlier as later.
2. that which came later as recorded as earlier
3. not collecting the taxes from the parties
4. collecting taxes from the parties who do not need to pay tax
5. not recording the collected taxes
6. Showing something which has not been realized as realized.
7. showing what has been carried out little as a lot
8. showing what is carried out much as little
9. showing one thing as carried out in the place of another thing
10. showing one party in the place of another party
11. showing something as paid when it is not paid
12. showing something as not paid when it is paid
13. delaying a payment
14. showing lesser payment in the place of more payment
15. showing more payment in place of a smaller payment
16. giving something instead of some other thing which need to be given
17. paying someone instead of someone else.
18. showing something delivered as made out as not delivered
19. showing something nod delivered as made out as delivered
20. not paying the for the forest produce and adding it to the treasury
21. not showing a purchase made in the records
22. showing an aggregate amount as individual amounts;
23. showing individual transaction as an aggregate
24. replacing a pricey item with a cheap item
25. replacing a cheap item with a pricey item
26. inflating the cost of items
27. deflating the cost of some items
28.  increasing the number of day (of a T&M contract)
29. decreasing the number of days (reverse of above)
30. converting a monthly contract to year (thereby 10 months is calculated as 1 year etc., )
31. taking advantage of days in a month while calculating
32. accounting in a wrong income head (ayamukham)
33. accounting in wrong expense head
34. inflating the number of people worked on a project
35. showing discrepancy in performance of people (employing a designer instead of an architect)
36. discrepancy in quality of goods used.
37. discrepancies in prices of goods
38. discrepancies in the weights of goods
39. discrepancies in the dimensions
40. discrepancies in the number of units

When any of such techniques are suspected, the subordinate officers, the store keeper, the accountant, the receiving party, the giving party, the mediator if any, the consultant, and the assistant consultant if any need to be individually interrogated.

Also, when the investigation is going on, there should be an announcement made to the public “such and such officer is being investigated for misappropriation; if any one of you are impacted please come forward and get the compensation” so that all the instances of the corruption will come out.

When the officer completely denies the charges and proved to be guilty even in one case, he should be liable for all the losses.

When the officer agrees some of the allegations, then he need to be tried in all other cases and recover only when he is proven guilty.

After the officer in question proved guilty, if the informer should be rewarded with some amount (1/6th) of recovered money.

If an informer withdraws the complaint after the officer proved guilty, even the informer should be punished harshly.

This brings us to the end of 8th chapter of 2nd book of artha SAstra.

Crisscrossing thoughts around #Cloud and #BigData

August 2, 2013

While “Big Data Analytics” is running on Cloud based infrastructure with 1000s of (virtual) servers, Cloud infrastructure management has become a big data problem!

Assuming all key availability and performance metrics need to be collected and processed regularly to keep the cloud infrastructure running within the agreed performance service levels and to identify the trends of demand for the cloud services there is an absolute need for the predictive analytics on the collected metrics data.

As the data centers gradually turn into private clouds with a lot of virtualization, it becomes increasingly important to manage the underlying grid of resources efficiently by allocating the best possible resources to the high priority jobs. The integrated infrastructure monitoring and analytics framework running on the grid itself can optimize the resource allocation dynamically to fit the workload characteristics could make the data center more efficient and green.

Taking the same approach to the business services across the organizational boundaries, there could be an automated market place where the available computing resources could be traded by the public cloud providers and the consumers can “buy” needed computing resources in the market and get their processing executed by probably combining multiple providers’ resources on an extended hybrid cloud in a highly dynamic configuration.

The data and processing have to be encapsulated at a micro or nano scale objects, taking the computing out of current storage – processor architecture into a more connected neuron like architecture with billions of nodes connected in a really BIG bigdata.


If all the computing needed on this tiny globe can be unified into a single harmonic process, the amount of data that needs moving comes to a minimum and a “single cloud” serves the purpose.

Conclusion: Cloud management using bigdata, and big data running on cloud infrastructure complement each other to improve the future of computing!

Question: If I have a $1 today, where should I invest for better future? In big data? Or in Cloud startup??

Have a fabulous Friday!