Archive for September, 2013

On precious items and their quality control

September 29, 2013

We have seen in the past ( http://sastra-artha.blogspot.in/2013/07/appointing-chief-custodian-of-goods-or.html ) a chief custodian of goods / items is appointed.

Now, cANakya deals with the “quality control” aspect of incoming goods into the kOSa gRha. (11th chapter of book 2)

Starting with pearls, corals, various gem stones, diamonds, fragrances (agaru, chandana etc.), silk and wools; cANakya describes the qualities that can identify best of the precious goods in detail and concludes with an evergreen SlOka.

अतः परेषां रत्नानां प्रमाणं मूल्यलक्षणम् ।
जातिं रूपं च जानीयान्निधानं नवकर्म च ॥
पुराण प्रतिसंस्कारं कर्म गुह्यंमुपस्करान् ।
देशकाल परीभोगं हिंस्राणां च प्रतिक्रियाम् ॥

So, one should know the following about the precious items and their quality control.
1. pramANam – knowledge about the thing and its value
2. mUlyam – its pricing
3. lakshaNam – their qualities
4. jAtim – their origin and classification
5. rUpam – the appearence of the items
6. nidhAnam – the process of preserving them
7. navakarma – polishing or keeping them up to date.
8. purANa prati samskaram – repairing the old ones or regular maintenance
9. karma guhyam – the secrets about them (could be some secret activities related to them)
10. upaskarAn – the tools related to the activities related to them
11. dESa kAla parI bhOgamthe right usage of them according to the place and time
12. hiMsrAnAm ca pratikriyAm – remedies against their destruction.

In the next topic (12th Chapter) , cANakya deals with mines and factories related to metals and describes different ways by which government should run the mining in a judicious way by regulating and putting up right amount of taxes and governance around the mining activity and large factories surrounding the mass production of goods. The mines and large factories are the major source of income to the government which can be used to build the right army to acquire the territory. So, territory has the ornament called treasury i.e., kOSa of the king which is used to protect it by the means of army.

Next two chapters (13th and 14th) deals specifically with the supervisor of gold factories and supervision of high street gold shops respectively.

Primary focus of these chapters is to take care of quality of precious items and metals throughout the territory of the King. This is applicable to the modern leaders as well. The assets need to go through the strict quality control process and those who are examining the items should have complete knowledge of the items being examined and most importantly should be able to put the things to the right usage at the right time and right place.

This post brings us to the end of 14th chapter of adhyakshapracAraH.

గృహమేధి – ధీరమతి

September 25, 2013

Kapila’s teaching from pOtana bhAgavatam

— on the occassion of Kapila shashTi, vyatIpAta, mahAlaya paksham
— కపిల షష్టి, వ్యతీపాత, మహాలయ పక్షం సందర్భంగా…

Kapila, the first philosopher describes the nature of human life and its ultimate purpose in Srimad bhAgavatam.

gRhamEdhi – being righteous, living a pious life leads to higher realms of life of progressively. But once the results of the meritorious actions depleate, one will come back to the earth for again performing actions.

dhIra mati – (one with a firm resolve) Only by giving up ahamkAra, mamakAra the wise men seek merger in the Lord. Only those follow the non-repetitive path leading to mOksha.

So, living a righteous life is a necessary condition for attaining moksha but that alone is not the sufficient condition confers moksha. Essentially one should seek moksha giving up Ego and attachment.

This is the esssence of teaching bhagavAn kapila taught to his mother dEvahUti.

కలి నాశనం

September 21, 2013

ఈ కలి కాలం లో కలి ప్రభావాన్ని తప్పిచుకునే మార్గం త్రిలోక సంచారి ఐన నారదుడు తన తండ్రిగారైన బ్రహ్మ దేవుని దగ్గర తెలుసుకున్న విషయాన్ని “కలి సంతరణ” ఉపనిషద్ గా మనందరికీ తెలుసు. “హరే రామ హరే రామ రామ రామ హరే హరే; హరే కృష్ణ హరే కృష్ణ కృష్ణ కృష్ణ హరే హరే” అనే మహా మంత్రాన్ని మూడున్నర కోట్ల జపం, నామ సంకీర్తన వినా మరోక మార్గం లేదని ఉపనిషద్ వచనం.
http://nonenglishstuff.blogspot.in/2009/09/blog-post_14.html

అది కూడ చెయ్య లేని వారికి వ్యాస భగవానుడు మహా భారతం లో నలోపాఖ్యానాన్ని విన్న వారికీ, చెప్పిన వారికీ కలి పురుషుని ప్రభావం బాధించదని ఫల శృతి ఇచ్చారు. బ్రహ్మశ్రీ చాగంటి కోటేశ్వర రావు గారు ప్రస్తుతం చేస్తున్న ప్రవచనంలో ఉటంకించబడి గుర్తుకొచ్చిన ఒక శ్లోకం.

కర్కోటకస్య నాగస్య దమయంత్యా నలస్యచ
ఋతుపర్ణస్య రాజర్ష్యేః కీర్తనం కలినాశనం

కర్కోటకుడనే నాగుణ్ణీ, మహాపతివ్రత ఐన దమయంతినీ, పరమ ధర్మాత్ముడైన నలుణ్ణీ, రాజర్షి ఐన ఋతుపర్ణుణ్ణీ కీర్తించుటవలన కలి నాశనం అవుతుంది

భగవన్నామ జపం, పుణ్యశ్లోకుల కీర్తనం ఈ కలి కాలం లో దివ్యౌషధాలు.

ఓం తత్ సత్

Bayesian Belief Networks for inference and learning

September 12, 2013

I have attended a daylong seminar at IIM Bangalore on 10th September on the subject of Bayesian Belief Networks. Dr. Lionel Jouffe, gave 4 case studies during the one day technical session.

Introduction to Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and building the network with multiple modes i.e., a network is built from a. mining the past data, or b. built purely from expert knowledge capture or a combination of both methods. Once the conditional probabilities for each node exist and associations between the nodes are built, both assisted and non-assisted learning can be used.

First case study involved knowledge discovery in the stock market whereby loading publicly available stock market data, a BBN is built, automatic clustering algorithm using the ‘discritized’ continuous variables was run to find similar tickers. ( http://www.bayesia.us/index.php/knowledgediscovery )

Second case study showed was on segmentation using BBNs. Input contained market share of 58 stores selling juices. Three groups of juices like local brands, national brands and premium brands of juices are sold in one state of US across 11 brands of above three groups. Using this data, BBN was built, automatic segmentation performed into 5 segments with a good statistical description of segmentation.

Third case study involved a marketing mix analysis to describe and predict the efficiency of multiple channel campaigns (like TV, radio, online) on product sales. ( http://www.bayesia.us/index.php/mktgmix )

The fourth case study covered a vehicle safety scenario taking publicly available accident data to discover the two key factors that can reduce fatality of injury based on parameters of vehicle, driver etc., ( http://www.bayesia.us/index.php/vehiclesafety )


Conclusion is any analytic problem can be converted into a BBN and solved. I have seen few advantages of this approach:
1. The BBN can be built in a No Data scenarios with expert knowledge completely hand crafted. It can also be built from big data scenario deriving the conditional probabilities mining the data.
2. One strong theoretical framework solving the problems making it easier to learn. No need to learn multiple theories.
As a technique, it has some promising features. The whitepapers presented are useful in understanding the technique in different scenarios. Views? Comments?

SAsanAdhikAraH – on writing Ordinances, Directives & Letters

September 2, 2013

King / Leader should be able to clearly articulate orders. Only written memos help as a basis of deploying the orders of sandhi (conciliation) or vigraha (incitement).

So, the lEkhaka (scribe) should have all the qualities of a minister, can actively listen to the King, and make the letter clearly understandable by the recipients.

The memo should clearly mention its source authority and details of the recipient addressed in a formal fashion mentioning the name, designation etc., considering the level with proper salutation.

arthakramaH = proper sequencing of the content

sambandhaH = the linkage between previous point to the next point

paripUrNatA = completeness by mentioning the cross references, examples, law and sAstrAs.

mAdhuryam = sweetness; being able to convey the meaning gently by using the right words conveying the meaning.

audAryam = exaltedness; not using the slang words and using the proper vocabulary

spashTatvam = clarity; using unambiguous words gives the clarity

The above six are called the lEkha sampat the wealth of the scribe.

There are 63 letters. Joining the letters as per the rules of grammar words are made. Words are of 4 types. 1. Nouns signifies being. 2. Verbs are indicative of action. 3. Prefixes qualify actions. 4. Indeclinable are particles. A combination such words that makes a complete sense is a sentence. At the maximum three words can be combined together to make a samasa (A compound word). While completing the writing it should end with ‘iti’ and signify “this is the word of such and such King”.

nindA (criticism), praSamsA (praise), pRccha (enquiry), AkhyAnam (a statement of ‘what is’), arthanA (a request), pratyAkhyAnam ( a refusal / rebuttal), upAlambham (reproof), pratishEdham (prohibition),  cOdana (permission and direction), svAntam (appeasement), abhyapapatti (help during difficult times), abhibhatRnam (warning or threatening of consequences), anunayam (propitiation which is of three types a. request to do something, b. requesting pardon c. in the time of a calamity of personal loss to a friend etc., ); These 13 are the matters for writing.

The edicts are of 8 types. prajApana lEkha – letters that describe indirect communication, AjnA lEkha – letter of command, paridAna lEkaha – letter of gifts, parIhAra lEkha – letter of exemption (from taxes etc.,), naiSRshThika lEkha – letter of authorization (of someone else to execute orders on behalf of the Leader), pravRttika lEkha – memo communicating natural calamities or man-made disasters, prati lEkha – letter in reply, sArvatrika lEkha – general circular that need to be circulated all across the kingdom.

There are 4 upAyAs (techniques, means) to get things done. They are sAma, prdAna, bhEda & daNDa.

sAma is of five types  praising of merits, mentioning the relationship, pointing out mutual benefits, pointing out profits to both parties in future, placing oneself at the disposal of the other i.e., kind of self-surrender are the five types of peaceful conciliation.

pradAna is of giving some gifts in exchange of some benefits from the other party.

bhEdam is creating doubt or creating fear in the opponent (group of opponents)

danDam is the final means of applying force (by killing or strong punishment, seizing the property etc., )

The defects of writing are as follows: Lack of charm, contradiction, unnecessary repetition, incorrect usage of words, confusion due to misuse of punctuation – These are the defects.

kauTilya says “this chapter has been constructed, for the benefit of leaders, having seen various SAstras by me” (this is the first time he uses, I have written this chapter a fresh!)

Thus, we come to the end of 10th chapter of second book of artha SAstra.