Archive for November, 2013

Director of customs duties and tolls

November 27, 2013

Having discussed the kOSa, kOshTha, paNya, kupya and AyudhAgaras that collect and preserve indigenous produce within the state, now cANakya moves on to export and import of goods.

SulkAdhyaksha should establish the customs office at the entry port. There should be a thorough check of all that is being imported for its quality, quantity and entry clearance document given at the source port.

Depending on the type of goods being imported, the duty on the goods is decided.

राष्ट्रपीडाकरम् भाण्डमुच्छिन्द्यादफलम् च यत्
महोपकारमुच्छुल्कम् कुर्याद् बीजं तु दुर्लभम्

Those goods that cause trouble in the territory (alcoholic drinks etc) and those goods do not have much use should not be imported. Those items that give great benefits to the people in the kingdom like medicinal things and important seeds not available within the country should be imported free of charge.

Based on the above principle, the pravEsya Sulka (import duty) need to be decided and it should be around 20% of the worth of the goods. Some items have 15%, 10% and very useful items have only 2.5% import duty.

Depending on the type of goods at least fifth of the duty should be collected before letting the goods enter the country and rest of it later. When the traders try to show a less valuable item as sample and import more valuable goods on that permit or engage in any malpractice related to evading import duties, various penalties need to be applied going to the range of completely confiscating the goods.

This post covers chapters 21 and 22 of book 2 (adhyaksha pracAra) of artha SAstra.

రిక్త వ్యర్థ సంసారములు

November 24, 2013

అంధేందూదయముల్ మహాబధిరశంఖారావముల్ మూకస
ద్గ్రంథాఖ్యాపనముల్ నపుంసకవధూకాంక్షల్ కృతఘ్నావళీ
బంధుత్వంబులు భస్మహవ్యములు లుబ్ధద్రవ్యముల్ క్రోడస
ద్గంధంబుల్ హరిభక్తి వర్జితుల రిక్తవ్యర్థసంసారముల్.

—ప్రహ్లాదుడు హిరణ్యకశిపునితో, భాగవతం, సప్తమ స్కంధం నుంచి

andha indUdayamu = a beautiful moon rise to a blind man
mahA badhira SankhArAvamu = a wonderful sound generated by blowing a conch shell to a completely deaf man
mUka sadgrandha AkhyApanamu = teaching great oratory works to a dumb person
napumsaka vadhU kAnksha = the desire of searching a bride for an impotent one
kRtaghnAvaLI bandhutvamulu = the relationships where the help is always ignored (and not returned in any way!)
bhasma havyamulu = trying to pour ash into a fire sacrifice
lubdha dravyamulu = the monies accumulated by a miser
krODa sadgandhamulu = the fragrance applied to a pig

All the above are the examples of achievements and lives of those who are devoid of devotion to Lord SrI hari which are hallow and useless.

రాజద్వార సౌఖ్యంబులు

November 21, 2013

సంతోషించితినిఁ జాలుంజాలు రతిరాజద్వారసౌఖ్యంబులన్
శాంతిన్ బొందితిఁ జాలుఁజాలు బహురాజద్వారసౌఖ్యంబులన్
శాంతిం బొందెదఁ జూపు బ్రహ్మపదరాజద్వారసౌఖ్యంబు ని
శ్చింతన్ శాంతుఁడ నౌదు నీ కరుణచే శ్రీ కాళహస్తీశ్వరా!

— ధూర్జటి శ్రీ కాళహస్తీశ్వర శతకం నుంచి 

I have enjoyed enough of pleasures granted by the cupid (rati-rAja manmatha);
I became tranquil by enough of successes attained by visiting & convincing powerful kings (leaders / CEOs etc.,)  of this world.
I will attain permanent peace by treading the path of realization of the ultimate bliss (brahma-pada-rAja-dvAra-saukhambu) by thy grace O lord of SrI kAlahasti! I will surely get beyond all the anxieties and attain that peace. I am sure….

— dhUrjaTi

Another post realted –

— Today is sankasTa hara caturthi of kArtIka mAsa

Context analytics for better decisions – Analytics 3.0

November 19, 2013

Today’s #BigData world, #analytics took additional complexity beyond pure statistics or pattern recognition using clustering, segmentation or predictive analytics using logistic regression methods.

One of the great challenge for big data’s unstructured analytics is the ‘context’. In traditional processing of data, we have removed the context and just recorded the content. All the we try to do with sentiment analysis is based on deriving the words, phrases & entities and try to combine them into ‘concepts’ and score them by matching known patterns of pre-discovered knowledge and assign the sentiment to the content.

The success rate in this method is fairly low. (This is my own personal observation!) One of the thoughts to improve the quality of this data is to add the context back to the content. To do this the technology enables is again a ‘Big Data’ solution. Means, we start with a big data problem and find the solution in the big data space. Interesting. Isn’t it?

Take the content data at rest, analyze it. and enrich with the context information like spatial and temporal information and derive knowledge from it. Visualize the data by putting similar concepts together and by merging same concepts into a single entity.

The big blue is doing this after realizing the fact. Few months back they published a ‘red paper’ that can be found here.

Finally putting the discovered learning into action in real time gives all the needed business impact and takes it to the world of Analytics 3.0. (Refer to

Exciting world of opportunities….

Standardizing weight, volume, time and space measurements

November 18, 2013

Standardizing weight, volume, time and space measurements

pautavam – tulAmAna pautavam – The superintendent of weights and measures should establish the standard weights and measures of volume. Weight measures for gold, silver and diamond are explained followed by larger weights. The method of making balances, standard weight stones is explained.

The volume measure of liquids and standard volume measures are also explained in this 19th chapter of second book of artha SAstra.

The 20th chapter gives an account of mAnAdhyaksha – Who is responsible to establish the standards for measuring the time and space.

In the minute scale for length starts with a paramANu (which can’t be observed with naked eye) till an angulam (inch). The later scale goes all the way to a yOjana.

Measuring time starts with one forth of the time taken to blink the eye (nimEsha). It goes all the way up to a measure of yuga.

Methods of making the time measuring instruments based on sundials, water based time measures etc., are given in this chapter.

Deciding the reconciliation between the lunar and solar years is also been discussed.

It is really important to precisely measure the standard units and the subject has been dealt carefully by cANakya in artha SAstra.

paNya, kupya, AyudhAgAra adhyaksha

November 17, 2013

This post covers three chapters dealing with supervisors of trade, forest produce and armoury. These three are important functions just after the kOSa and kOshTa covered in last two posts.

paNyAdhyaksha –  should oversee the trade that happens in the kingdom. For the goods produced in the country the market should be centralized; for the goods imported from other countries the markets distributed; both markets should favour the people (ubhayam ca prajAnaAm anugrahEna vikrApayEt)

sthUlam api ca lAbham prajAnAm a-upkArikam vArayEt – Even there is a chance to make big profit, if it injures the interest of the subjects, should be avoided. (Making big profits by exploiting the consumers should be controlled by the director of trade!)

Should make sure there is no artificially created demand by stopping smooth flow of goods to public. Also should make sure the old stock is mixed with the new stock by the traders.

kupyAdhyaksha – oversees the forest produce. He should establish necessary workshops to make the best use of forest produce by the various persons live on the forest produce. He should make sure the produce is used for benefit of people living in the cities & forests as well as for protecting the forts and the kingdom.

(Forest produce includes collecting several poisons from poisonous creatures!)

AyudhAgArAdhyaksha – is responsible for overseeing the activities of armoury. He should be well versed with:
a. things used in the combat
b. things used to protect ones own fort and kingdom
c. things used to break into enemy’s kingdom

weapons, protection from weapons, other tools, machinery, along with the people who can operate them and maintain them correctly, amount of time and cost of preparation of such things, their sources etc.,

He should make sure all the static machinery (which is established in one place) is established in its respective places with in the fort and kingdom.
He should make sure all the movable armoury is kept in different places and continuously change the places to make sure it is not kept in one location all the time.

The master of armoury should also take care of various forest produce which is used in warfare! (Some material used for fooling the enemy and making secret attacks!)

My Notes:
So, every responsible position has clear roles and responsibilities defined. Clear handshakes understood and cANakya’s administration works perfectly hand in hand across the functions.

Analytical Processing of Data

November 14, 2013

A short presentation on Analytical Processing of Data; very high level overview…..

శారద – సర్వద

November 10, 2013

शारदा शारदाम्भोजवदना वदनाम्बुजे ।
सर्वदा सर्वदाऽस्माकं सन्निधिं संनिधिं क्रियात् ॥

శారదా శారదాంభోజవదనా వదనాంబుజే
సర్వదా సర్వదాస్మాకం సన్నిధిం సంనిధిం క్రియాత్

SAradA SAradAmbhOja-vadanA vadanAmbujE
sarvadA sarvadA’smAkam sannidhim saMnidhim kriyAt

— A prayer to Goddess SArada (seen in the beginning of 4th sarga of raghuvamSam of mahAkavi KAlidAsa)

O Goddess SAradA! (who is having) the face like fully bloomed lotus of Sarad Rtu! O sarva+dA (sarva=everything, da=capable of giving; so sarvada is the one who is capable of giving everything i.e., the goddess of knowledge) always in our speech (sarvadA asmAkam vadanAmbujE) reveal (cause – kriyAt) and point towards (sannidhim) hidden treasure of TRUE knowledge (sat+nidhim – true supreme knowledge).

vAgdEvi or SArada or saraswati reveals herself in the faculty of speech which is called vadana. Only due to right knowledge one can achieve anything. She is sarvada as well. She should finally bestow the supreme knowledge that confers moksha!

om tat sat