gUDha jIva raksha – Protecting people from "secret erners"

In 4th chapter of kaNTaka sOdhanam, cANakya lists thirteen (13) types of people who could earn secret income or take bribes by misusing the power or abilities they have. They need to be caught red-handed and punished suitably.

In a past post we have discussed sending secret agents to other territories. (ref: ). Now we shall discuss using intelligence agency in catching internal thorns.

1. dharmastha – judge: When in doubt an agent to approach the judge and request him to save one of the culprit by taking bribe.

2. pradEshTha – magistrate

3. grAma mukha – head of a village

4. adhyaksha – a superintend of a department

5. kUTa sAkshi – false witness

6. kUTa srAvaka – who can give false evidence / alibi

7. samvasana karta – a mesmerizer using drugs / magical spells

8. kRtyASIla and 9. abhicAra SIla – those who cause danger to others by spells and tricks

10. rasada – dealer of poisons

11. madana yOga vyavahArta – dealer of drugs

12. kUTa rUpa karta – one makes counterfeit currency

13. kUTa swarna vyavahAri – one who deals with adulterating gold

As a first step, a samAharta i.e., an Administrator should identify the people who may be spending more than their declared incomes. The agents in the disguise of monks, singers, fortune tellers, acting as mentally challenged, acting as deaf, blind, doctors, managers of pubs, managers of brothels, sellers of food items and meat etc., should approach them in a suitable manner and gain their confidence. Later they should be tested suitably for their purity & corruption.

Having proven guilty / corrupt, all these thirteen types of people of secret earnings should be punished and exiled away from the country.

Having caught them, the administrator should show them publicly and proclaim the omniscience of the King to the people of the country.

Thus we reach the end of 4th chapter of 4th book of artha SAstra called kaNTaka SOdhanam.


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