Supression of Criminals – Some final topics

Ninth chapter of kaNTaka SOdhanam deals with the aspects related to keeping a watch over the department heads. With the power comes possibility of misuse of the power. So, a constant watch over the heads of departments is needed.

evam arthacarAn pUrvam rAjA daNDEna SOdhayEt, SOdhayEyuSca SuddhAstE paura jAnapadAn damaiH. (Concluding verse of 9th chapter)

King, first make sure the officers are pure by necessary punishment as needed, Then let those officers administer their respective functions and control the people living in cities and those who live in villages.

It is important to see the distinction between pauras (those who live in pura i.e, city) and jAnapada (those who live in janapada). As the lifestyles are different for urban and rural people, the treatment towards them when enforcing administrative laws should be tailored accordingly.

Tenth chapter deals with the fines related to criminal offences that involve injury that leaves victim disabled in some limbs.

Eleventh chapter deals with two types of capital punishment. A simple death sentence and a death with torture (citra-vadha)

Twelfth chapter deals with the crimes involving “violation of maidens” – Cutting off hands is the punishment for rape. If the victim dies, death penalty is the punishment.

Last chapter deals with several punishments for aticAra (behavior which is unacceptable in the society) Having summarized the all these finally concludes with the closing statements.

If a King punishes one who is innocent by mistake, King should pay back thirty times of the fine in the name of Lord varuNa. In the event of King not punishing the culprits, Lord varuNa punishes the King suitably as the Lord varuNa is the ultimate authority in dispensing law and order. 

My Notes:
In daily sandhyAvandanam, there is a veda mantra “yAsAgM rAjA varuNO yAti madhyE satya-anRtE apapaSyan janAnAm madhucyuta SucayO yAH pAvakAsthAna ApaH SaggusyOnA bhavantu” is used as one of the mArjana mantram, which roughly means “Lord varuNa who is the fluidity in waters always keeps a tab on good and bad deeds of people, such waters improve the joy in us” The fluidity in water is the conscious nature of water or the force of life which powers whole of life on this Earth. That power of waters is called as life force or prANa Sakti that flows in the nADis keeps the beings alive. The very life force is Lord varuNa who continuously observes the virtue and vice of beings and administers law and order in the world.

This post brings us to the end of 4th adhikaraNa called kaNTaka SOdhanam- Keeping the kingdom free of thorns i.e., criminals.


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