Archive for March, 2015

జన్మసాఫల్యమ్ – Fruitful life

March 24, 2015

आस्ते देशिक चरणं निरवधिरास्ते तदीक्षणे करुणा ।
आस्ते किमपि तदुक्तं किमतः परमस्ति जन्मसाफल्यम् ॥

ఆస్తే దేశిక చరణం నిరవధిరాస్తే తదీక్షణే కరుణా
ఆస్తే కిమపి తదుక్తం కిమతః పరమస్తి జన్మసాఫల్యమ్

AstE dESika caraNam; niravadhirAstE tadIkshaNE karuNA,
AstE kimapi taduktam; kimataH paramasti janmasAphalyam?

— स्वात्मनिरूपणम्, స్వాత్మనిరూపణం, svAtmanirUpaNam 147

His Holiness Swami Virajeshwara Saraswati

When there is lotus feet of guru, when there is boundless compassion in his glance and when there is his teaching (whatsoever if there is, other than the graceful silence!); What else greater need for fulfilment of life? 

Samkara bhagavatpAdAcArya stated this in his work svAtma nirUpaNam. Remembering my Guru who made my life fulfilled by his divine grace on the eve of 65th vardhanti of ananta SrI vibhUshita bhAratI tIrtha mahAswami, current SankarAcArya of SringEri SAradA pITham.

Let one and all make their lives fruitful i.e, achieve ‘janma sAphalyam’ by the teachings of unbroken lineage of gurus!

saMSraya vRttiH – On seeking shelter

March 22, 2015

Having established the fact that there are six measures dealing with situations in the circle of kings, now the discussion starts how to apply them on the field.

1. If the advancement and harm is same by taking either samdhi or vigraha one should resort to samdhi. By vigraha there is a risk of damage, expenditure etc.,

2. By the above statement, cANakya explained the sate of Asana and yAna as well. One should prefer Asana in the situation of similar results with both Asana and yAna.

3. When the same happens between dvaidI-bhAva and samSraya one should opt dvaidI-bhava, as a king who seeks shelter will end up doing the activity for the advancement of the king who has provided the shelter; where as the dvaidI-bhava still gives freedom to act on one’s own advancement.

So, samsraya is the last option for a leader! and cANakya discusses about that as the first topic in shADguNyam!! 

One should seek shelter from the king who is more powerful than the opponent. It is better to seek shelter from a king who is not a natural enemy to the king. If such a king is not found, as a last resort one should surrender to the opponent himself.

One should keep watching the situation of the king who provided the shelter. When the shelter provider has weakened, king should move away from his shelter.

If there is fear simultaneously from two opponents, one should seek refuge under the powerful opponent. This has to be done only after considering the option of dvaidI-bhAva i.e., come to an agreement of peace with one and continue conflict with the other.

If the situation of two opponents simultaneously mount pressure, one should seek shelter from the most justly behaved middle king.

Finally, a concluding piece of advice:
प्रियो यस्य भवेद्योवा प्रियोऽस्य कतरस्तयोः ।
प्रियो यस्य स तं गच्छेत् इति आश्रयगतिः परा ॥
If there is a question weather to seek shelter from “who likes you” or “whom you like”? Then surely get shelter from the one “who likes you” – This is the supreme method of surrender.

I think this one is an evergreen advice to one and all dealing with any type of protection. Go to the one “who likes you” rather than the one “whom you like”!!!

Thus we reach the end of 2nd chapter of shADguNyam.

Introduction to shADguNyam – six measures of foreign policy

March 14, 2015

As explained in last post the circle of kings have their excellences and interact with each other based on their respective policies.

Seventh book of artha SAstra is called shADguNyam. saD means six, guNa approximately means measure or act.

saMdhi = agreement of peace
vigraha = defend by waging war or being offensive and restricting the opponent
Asana = do nothing or wait and watch
yAna = march forward for a war
samSraya = get shelter under a superior power
dvaidI-bhAva = make saMdhi (with one power) and vigraha (with the other)

Are all the six above valid? some earlier teachers like vAtavyAdhi (probably uddhava) of artha SAstra felt there are only two, the first two saMdhi and vigraha are the only valid policies. Either you make peace or you wage a war with the opponent.

But, wait and watch is a policy, similarly marching ahead before opponent starts his offence or gaining help from a more powerful king before opponent moves are also valid policies; similarly simultaneous sandhi with one power and continued war with another is a situational policy; that is also very valid. Hence, kauTilya concludes that there are indeed six measures of foreign policy called shADguNyam.

A leader / king’s power / position within the circle of kings i.e., the maNDala, will either diminish (kshya) or remain (sthana) or improve (vRddhi). It is very important to decide honestly the direction in which the time is leading to. 

Taking whatever of above six means there is a larger improvement, one should take that. Taking any of the measures the improvement can be made faster one should take that.

By taking any of the above measures if there is diminishing of current status that should not be taken.

If there is going to be same amount of loss to self and opponent or similar benefit to self and opponent then one should take the route of wait and watch. But not for too long!

So, एवं षड्भिर्गुणैरेतैः स्थितः प्रकृति मण्डले ।
पर्येषेत क्षयात् स्थानं स्थानात् वृद्धिंच कर्मसु ॥

A king established himself in the maNDala of nature, should continuously act in a way that he moves up from the point of diminishing to stability and stability to improvement using the sixflod measures. 

Thus we reach the end of first chapter of seventh book of artha SAstra that establishes the six fold measures and gives a fundamental principle of kshya, sthana and vRddhi using the shADguNyam. This is the 99th chapter from the beginning of artha SAstra. 

కామ దహనం

March 5, 2015

శమ్భుస్వయమ్భుహరయో హరిణేక్షణానాం యేనాక్రియన్త సతతం గృహకర్మదాసాః,
వాచామగోచర చరిత్ర విచిత్రితాయ తస్మై నమో భగవతే మకరధ్వజాయ. (శృంగార శతకం, మంగళాచరణం)

Sambhu i.e, the lord of transformation, svayambhu the lord of creation and hari the lord of sustainability; this trinity also been made to work for their ladies pArvati, saraswati and lakshmi by the power of that lord who is having makara dhvajam (manmadha i.e., the lord of desire) and whose ability and history can’t be described in words, for him I bow down!

చూడొత్తంసిత చారు చంద్ర కలికా చంచచ్చిఖా భాస్వరో
లీలాదగ్ధవిలోల కామశలభః శ్రేయోదశాగ్రేస్ఫురన్
అంతఃస్ఫూర్జదపార మోహ తిమిర ప్రాగ్భారముచ్చాటయం
శ్చేతస్సద్మని యోగినాం విజయతే జ్ఞానప్రదీపో హరః (వైరాగ్య శతకం మొదటి శ్లోకం)

While the crescent moon adorned on the forehead appears like the tip of the fire and the manmadha (god of desires) falls in it like a locust being burnt away; the internal ignorance which is completely removed by the light emitted within the minds of yOgis, let the victory be to the light of knowledge in the form of Hara i.e, the supreme lord!

To complete three Satakams of Bhartrihari – nIti Satakam mangalAcaraNam in last post –