General rules for applying policy; methods of agreements by a weak king

Based on the sakti i.e, power one should apply the shad-guNyam. One should seek sandhi with the opponent of equal or of stronger power. vigraha with the weaker. Fighting with the stronger is like a foot soldier fighting with the elephant! Fighting with equal is like two earthen pots dashing each other and destroying each other!!

If the stronger opponent is not desiring peace, then one should follow the techniques given in abalIyasam (13th book)

If the equal opponent is not desiring peace then harm them to the extent of the harm they inflict. Only when both pieces of the metal are heated up, the metal ends can be joined or welded!

Even after agreeing the peace, if the opponent becomes weak in his excellence, one should take the opportunity to conquer the opponent.

Even when powerful and continuing the war with the opponent, if the signs of weakness in own excellence then one should approach for the agreement of peace.

If war or peace do not result in any advancement then take a wait and watch policy.

Even though the opponent is powerful but going through situational difficulties then one should attack the opponent taking the opportunity.

Even though the opponent is weak, but one’s own powers have situational difficulties, in that situation one should seek shelter or if war with one and peace with other policy should be adopted if applicable.

In case of equal opponent all the above rules should be followed.

The following are some special points:
When a stronger opponent comes and occupies, the weaker king should just surrender and seek peace. This type of treaty is called as “AtmAmisha sandhi”

If the treaty is made in such a way that the military commander (sEnApati) along with troops will surrender and freeing the king from the opponent it is called “AtmarakshaNa sandhi”

If the treaty is made to just surrender the troops it is called “adrasTha purusha sandhi”. In this both the king and the chief army commander will be saved from surrender.

TYPE1: The above three sandhis are called dandOpanata sandhi i.e., by giving the troops. In first two of them one should get quickly into a marital relationship with the opponent king to make such a treaty stronger and more confident. In the third, one should secretly eradicate the opponent.

TYPE2: There are four types of sandhis that can be made by giving some of the wealth from the treasury i.e., kOsOpanata sandhis. I will pay some amount at some point – such an agreement is atyayita sandhi. If the money is paid in lump sum it is parikraya sandhi of if it is paid in installments it is called upagraha sandhi. Or if some amount of gold and a marital relationship will result in “suvarna sandhi”

TYPE3: There are three modes of dEsOpanata sandhis these depend on giving a part of the territory to the opponent. Giving one part, giving majority of territory leaving only the fort and some important areas or giving the tax income from some of the territory make up these sandhis.

So, there are three types of hIna sandhis that are available at the disposal when a stronger opponent attacks a weaker opponent. The best course of action should be chosen from the options above based on the place and time considerations by the weaker king.

This post covers sections 101 and 102 of artha SAstra; i.e., chapter 3 of book 7.


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