On treaties related to war

Sixth chapter of book 7 deals comprehensively on treaties related to war. The treaties are primarily of 2 types.

1. paripaNita:  Conditional and 2. aparipaNita: without any conditions

One should make an unconditional treaty with an opponent who is wicked, who is in a hurry, who is a short sighted to findout the defects and then breach. Other than for this disceving purpose treaties should not be made without conditions or obligations.

Conditions are based on place (dESa) i.e., “I will deal with this territory and you will deal with that territory” or time (kAla) “I will deal with such and such time and you should cover at this time” or a specific result (artha) i.e, “I will do this work and achieve such and such reasult and you should do that work and achieve such and such result” 

So, any one of the above (3 types) any two of the combinations dESa and kAla, dESa and artha, kAla and artha (3 types) and all the three (1 type) makes up seven types of conditional treaties are possible.

One should consider the difficulties of territory (Some territories are easier to deal and some are difficult e.g., mountains, snow etc.,) time (some times are easier and others are difficult e.g., cold winters or hot summers) and some objectives are easier and others very difficult while agreeing on treaties.

Having agreed, one should start and complete the obligations of their part first. Then look at assessing other side.

In all the treaties, there are four aspects that need to be managed. The first aspect is called AkRta-cikIrsha this deals with maintaining the ecosystem changes and placing the new king / treaty in its suitable place. The new treaty will result in adjusting the positions of other agreements and relationships.

The second aspect is the kRta-slEshaNam that deals with obliging the conditions from both sides. Making sure the obligations are met with diligence is the second aspect.

If the opponent is joining hands with enemy, violating the conditions is called kRta-vidUshaNam, which is the third aspect.

The fourth aspect is called avaSIrNa-kriya is about renegotiation of violated treaty with the other party.

Now cANakya discusses on the reasons for parties violating the treaty. Earlier teachers list multiple reasons but kauTilya puts them into three heads: 1. fear, 2. non-engagement 3.anger are the only causes of violation of treaties.

When renegotiating, one should consider the following four situations:
1. One who has walked away with some valid reason and came back due to valid reason
2. One who as walked away without any reason and came back without any reason
3. One who has left due to valid reason but came back without any reason
4. One who has left without any reason but came back with a valid reason

One who has seen a valid defect in the leader and left and came back as he sees the defect of leader is gone such a person can be considered for renegotiated samdhi…. who has left due to his own defect and came back seeing some benefit should not be allowed to join….. [cANakya gives several hints of situations of renegotiation is allowed and barred!!]

Finally the chapter concludes with definitions of three types of war:
1. prakASa yuddham: Open war, agreed time and place for the war and both armies fight in the designated place at designated time.
2. kUTa yuddham: Sudden attack without any hint, agreeing to fight at one place and attacking at another place etc., and
3. tUshNIm yuddham: Silent or cold war – secretly causing difficulties in the opponent’s territory

What is astonishing to me in this chapter is the detailed consideration of situations and enumerating all the aspects of treaties!  May be one can write a complete book based on this one chapter!!

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