defensive reaction of "attacked" & special allies

Eight chapter of seventh book of artha SAstra deals with two aspects of foreign policy.

yAtavya vRttiH – When multiple opponents are joining together to attack the king then one should understand the reasons for such an alliance between the opponents. Then the strategy is to either split that alliance by creating differences between the parties or defect one key member in opposition alliance by:

  1. offering double the benefit or 
  2. by highlighting the adverse consequences of war like vyaya – expenditure, pryAsa – exertion, pratyavAya – adversity, parOpakAra – helping others to prosper that can turn dangerous, and SarIra bAdhA – physical pain of war.

anugrAhya mitra visEshAH – There are some special types of allies or friends circle. When dealing with them in terms of making agreements and sharing profits. They can be favored more due to special nature:

They are:

  1. SakyArambhi – One who takes up the responsibility to do something only when he is capable of achieving result
  2. kalyArambhi – One who takes up defect-less endeavors.
  3. bhavyArambhi – who carries out actions keeping the long term future in mind. 
  4. sthirakarma – one who firmly determined to achieve. 
  5. anurakta-prakRti – one whose subordinates are pleasantly obedient and loving. 

There are various other situations and considerations of breaching previous agreements in favor of new ones. But simple conclusion is:

समे हि लाभे संधिः स्याद्विषमे विक्रमो मतः ।
सम हीन विशिष्टानामित्युक्ताः संधिविक्रमाः ॥

If the profit between equals is equal then sandhi – agreement. If not then conflict; considering the special cases! 

Thus on this auspicious makara Sankaranti day, we reach the end of chapter 8 of book 7 that covers 114 and 115 topics in the 106th division when counted from the first without special book divisions of artha SAstra. 

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